Thursday, November 13, 2014

Puru the Brave - Grammar

C.  Grammar
  1. Let’s have a look at the following sentences from the text.
  1. My kingdom should remain independent.
  2. You should treat me as your equal.
  3. I must say every Indian soldier fought like a tiger.
In sentence 1, should indicates obligation whereas in 2, it indicates condition.
In sentence 3 ‘must’ is used to indicate insistence on the part of the speaker / necessity.
It is also used when the speaker has authority over the listener.
It is important to understand how the modals ‘should’ and ‘must’ are used.

(People sometimes use should to indicate something that is desirable and must to indicate obligation. However, some people use them interchangeably.)

Now fill in the blanks in the following paragraph with ‘should’  or ‘must’.
I …………… say that you ……………… come to school regularly because you cannot miss   important lessons. You ………… attend extra classes in time tomorrow. Otherwise I will punish you.  You ………………. return my book which I gave you a month ago.  You …………………… change your habits otherwise you will not come up in life.

Now read the conversation between a doctor and a patient and fill in the blanks with should ( should not) and must( must not).

Mr.Rao, what exactly is your problem?
I’ve been suffering from gastric problem for a long time.
Mr.Rao,  I __________  say  you ____________ eat non-vegetarian or spicy food for some time.
Can I eat boiled eggs or omelettes, doctor?
Isn’t an egg non-vegetarian? You ______________  eat any  non-vegetarian food for quite some time. In fact, you _____________have stopped eating it long ago. You __________consult me in a week.
I am sorry, doctor__ I won’t  eat non-vegetarian food any longer. You are quite correct, doctor. I __________ take your advice  and______________ avoid eating  non-vegetarian and spicy food. Thank you very much, doctor.
You are welcome. I think you _____________ remember my advice.

  1. Look at the following sentences from the text:
  1. But their generals are not so good as ours.
  2. The Indian generals are not so skillful as the Greek generals.
  3. It has been a great battle – perhaps the greatest of my life.
In the above sentences 1&2, the Indian generals are compared with Greek generals. The third sentence means that it was the greatest or the best battle of all his (Alexander’s) battles. When we want to compare one thing with the other, we use degrees of  comparison – positive, comparative and superlative forms of adjectives.

If we compare two things or two sets of things, we use positive or comparative forms of adjectives. If we compare more than two things or two sets of things, we use the superlative form of adjectives. We can transform positive, (comparative and superlative degrees) into comparative and superlative and vice versa.

Let us observe the sentences 1 and 2 above.
  1. Their generals are not so good as ours.
  2. Indian generals  are not so skillful as the Greek generals.
The underlined words in the above sentences are adjectives. These are the positive forms
of adjectives. The other forms of these adjectives are given below.

Positive        Comparative           Superlative
good               better                                     best
skillful                         more skillful               most skillful

The two sentences are said to be in the positive degree since the adjectives are in the positive degree.
They can be transformed into comparative degree by changing the adjectives into comparative degree and making certain other changes.

Sentences 1and 2 can be changed into comparative forms as shown below:
  1. Our generals are better than their generals.
  2. The Greek generals are more skillful  than Indian generals.
Now look at the third sentence.
It is the greatest battle of my life.

The above sentence can be turned into the comparative and positive  degrees as shown below.
It is greater than any other  battle of my life.
No other battle of my life is so great as  this.

Now look at the following sentence in the superlative degree  of comparison:

Puru is one of the bravest kings in the world.
This sentence means that there are a few kings in the world who are as brave as Puru. It also means  that Puru  is not  the only bravest king  in  the   world.   Let’s see how  the above sentence can be transformed into comparative and positive degrees of comparison.

Puru is braver than many other/ most of the other kings in the world (Comparative)
Very few kings in the world are as brave as Puru. (Positive Degree)

Observe the following  forms of comparison of some adjectives.

Positive Degree
Comparative Degree
Superlative Degree
more frightened
most frightened
more lawful
most lawful

Change  the  following  sentences  into  other  forms  of  comparison  as  indicated  in brackets.
  1. Rahul Dravid is one of the greatest batsmen in the world.( comparative degree)
  2. Alexander was the greatest soldier in the world.( positive degree)
  3. India is one of the fastest  developing countries in the world.( comparative degree)
  4. No other river in the world is so long as the Nile.( superlative degree)
  5. Hindi is one of the most popular languages in  India.( positive degree)
  6. Lara is not so great as Tendulkar.( comparative degree)
  7. Rekha is one of the most beautiful girls in the class.(positive degree)
  8. Very few metals are as expensive as platinum.( comparative degree)
  9. Shimla is colder than all  other hill stations in the Himachal Pradesh.( superlative degree)
  10. Delhi is one of the most crowded cities of India.( positive degree)

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