Thursday, May 29, 2014

The Journey - Vocabulary



Vocabulary
I. Look at these words from the story:
1. newly-wed wife          2.bus stop           3.forehead

They are all compound words. A compound word is a union of two or more words to convey a unit idea or special meaning that is not as clearly or quickly conveyed by separated words. As shown above, compound words may be hyphenated, written open (as separate words), or written solid (closed). The use of compounding in English is an evolving process. As expressions become more popular or adopt special meanings, they follow a gradual evolution from two or more separate or hyphenated words to single words.
audio visual        audio-visual        audiovisual
copy editor         copy-editor        copyeditor
wild life                wild-life                wildlife

The words in the first, second and third columns are called 'open compounds',
'hyphenated compounds' and 'closed compounds' respectively. In this unit we focus on hyphenated compounds.

A hyphenated compound is a combination of words joined by a hyphen or hyphens. Here, the hyphen aids understanding and readability and ensures correct pronunciation. Words are hyphenated mainly to express the idea of a unit and to avoid ambiguity.

  1. Pick out all the compound words from the story and group them under the headings as explained above.
  1. Fill in the blanks to make hyphenated compound words. Refer to a dictionary and get the meaning. Write a few sentences using them appropriately.
1
20
kilo
chest
rupee


tin
2
newly
wedded
wife

association
constructed


particular

flood
hit

3
home
made
Wine
flood

villages
pebble

road

hearted
people
well

man
4
white
collar
job
pink




union

C. Fill in the blanks with the missing parts of compound words.

Kedarnath lived in Uttarakhand. Due to heavy rains, his village was hit by floods. His newly _______________ house fell down and he became ____________less. The Chief Minister visited all the____________hit villages and announced immediate help. However, Kedarnath lost his self_________________ and tried to commit suicide by jumping into the flooded river. Some brave and _____________hearted people rescued him risking their lives. They told their stories too. Someone had lost his ____________wedded wife, and someone else had lost all his family members. One of them offered him a ______________collar job. It required him to carry rice bags. But he could not carry even a 20 _____________ bag,  so he asked for a _______________job. But no such jobs were available. One of them suggested ____________ employment scheme. But Kedarnath had no money. One day as he was walking on the pebble_____________ road, he found some ____________ plated idols and jewellery in a box.

II. Look at the word 'dilly-dally'from the text. This is a reduplicative word. The words super-duper and bye bye are also reduplicative words. But they belong to different categories shown below:

  1. Duplicative type: Here, the first part of the word is repeated without any change.
Eg:bye bye

  1. Alliterative type: Here, the two parts have the same consonants but different vowels.
Eg.dilly-dally, chit-chat

  1. Rhyming type: Here, the second word starts with a different consonant but rhymes with the first part.
Eg.super-duper

A.     Look at the following reduplicatives carefully and put them under proper headings in the table given below.
ding-dong        aye-aye           bow-wow           chuk-chuk           easy-peasy
tata                     ping-pong      bang-bang          zigzag                    see-saw
okey-dokey      hip-hop          hodge-podge    helter-skelter    chop-chop
papa                   itsy-bitsy         boo-boo              hush-hush          tip-top
chit-chat           ha ha                nitty-gritty          pitter-patter      hanky-panky
teeny-weeny   hurly-burly   mish-mash          night-night          tick-tock

Duplicative
Alliterative
Rhyming




























Reduplicatives are used in a variety of ways. Some simply imitate sounds: dingdong, bow-wow. Some suggest alternative movements: flip-flop, ping-pong. And some intensify meaning: teeny-weeny(very small), tip-top(very good).

Find the meanings of the words you like and use them in your own sentences. You will find similar words in your language too. For example, in Telugu, we have words like chi-chi, pho-pho, kaadu-kaadu, tara-tama, taado-pedo, pilla-jella, auto-ito. Give some examples from your language. Don't they sound musical?

B.      Answer each of the following questions using a reduplicative word.

1. What does the clock say?                        ______________________________________________
2. What does the school bell say?               ______________________________________________
3. How does the rain drop?                         ______________________________________________
4. What does the dog say?                           ______________________________________________
5. How do you laugh?                                 ______________________________________________

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