I. In the review of 'Maya Bazaar' the expression, 'language and custom', has two words linked with the conjunction 'and'. We also use expressions like 'cup and saucer', 'near and dear' etc.
These pairs of words joined by a conjunction 'and' are called 'binomials'. In these expressions, the word order never changes. For example, we say 'near and dear' and not 'dear and near'.
Here are some sentences with 'binomials' underlined.
- Sports is a part and parcel of education.
- The new theatre is rough and ready.
- Music is not only Rahman's bread and butter but also his passion.
- The film industry is expanding in leaps and bounds.
- He can pick and choose anything he likes. It is the customer to decide.
- 'Give and take' policy is always helpful.
- Ray gave his heart and soul to reading books.
- He stood by me through thick and thin.
- The main goods were shifted first. Then the odds and ends were taken later.
Match the following binomials with their meanings and use them in your own sentences.
Column - A Column - B
- part and parcel ( ) a. unimportant things
- rough and ready ( ) b. livelihood
- leaps and bounds ( ) c. in difficult times
- bread and butter ( ) d. dedicated
- pick and choose ( ) e. help one another
- give and take ( ) f. a large choice
- heart and soul ( ) g. big leaps
- thick and thin ( ) h. an integral part
- odds and ends ( ) i. almost finished
II. Read the following conversation that took place in the classroom of a film institute.
Professor Paul: As a part of our 'Diploma in film-making' we have discussed certain aspects of film technology, right? I hope by now all of you are familiar with those concepts. If you have some more queries, we can discuss them. Now the class is open for questions. Rishi: I think what is included and excluded in an individual shot is called 'Frame'. Am I right?
P P : Yes, you are. What is brought to the viewer is called a frame.
Prudhvi: Which shot is used to show a happy reunion,Sir?
P P : It is called 'Arc'. The camera moves in an arc around the subject (artistes).
Any more questions...?
P P : Here is a transparency that helps you to have a clear idea about certain basic concepts of film-making.
Shots and angles
1. Establishing shot: It is usually from a greater distance to establish setting.
(familiarises the scene or setting)
2. Close- up: It refers to the image occupying at least 80 percent of the frame.
3. Two shot: Two people in the frame are showed equally.
4. Dutch angle: It is neither vertical nor horizontal. It‘s oblique.
5. Bird’s eye shot: It is shot directly and vertically down at the subject.
6. High angle: Camera is above the subject. It creates an impression that the subject is weak or powerless.
7. Low angle: The camera is placed below the subject. The subject appears larger than normal.
8. Rack focus: Here the focus is shifted from one subject to the other where the subject that is not in focus is blurred.
9. Footage: It is the total exposed film
10. Montage: Different images are assembled to build an impression.
Here are some visuals. Identify their features and label them. You may choose the labels given above.