Saturday, May 31, 2014

Jamaican Fragment - Vocabulary



Vocabulary
I. Tick (..........) the correct meaning of the words underlined below.
  1. The game, if it could be called a game was not elaborate.
a.       simple           b) detailed          c) brief                  d) mysterious
  1. The little boy strode imperiously up and down.
a.       politely         b) respectfully   c) humbly            d) proudly
  1. This man, I said to myself, will puzzle all day on whether the blacks will eventually rise and rule the world.
a.       Gradually     b) finally               c) immediately d) temporarily
  1. Could it be that the little dark boy was the son of a servant in the home and therefore had to do the white boy's bidding?
a.       Advice          b) instruction     c) order                d) suggestion
  1. The white youngster walked abjectly behind him.
a.       submissively              b) unhappily       c) miserably        d) secretly

II The following words/phrases describe the two boys in the story Jamaican Fragment.
four-year-old                     coarse hair                          five -year-old                     hazel eyes
1) Now look for the other words in the lesson that describe the two boys. Write your words in the appropriate column.
The White Boy
The Black Boy











2) Think of other words that may be used to describe the characters of the white boy and the black boy.

III Read the following sentence.
The bigger of the two was a sturdy youngster, very dark, with a mat of coarse hair on his head and coal black eyes.
In the above sentence , the narrator described the hair and eyes of the boy in an effective way.
The expression 'a mat of coarse hair' is a metaphor.

A metaphor is a word / phrase used in an imaginative way to describe something or somebody in order to show that the two things have the same qualities and make the descriptions more effective.

Now the hair of the boy can also be described as the hair of the boy is like a mat.
A simile is a figure of speech that expresses the resemblance of one thing to another of a different category usually introduced by like, as… as .

A simile, like a metaphor, is also a comparison.The primary difference is that a simile contains the words like, as, as….as to compare two things while a metaphor simply suggests different (dissimilar) things as the same(similar)

Read the following paragraph and identify the similes and metaphors in it.
Sunitha was an exceptional student. She was good at sports and other co-curricular activities too. One day the teachers were talking about her. The maths teacher said fondly, "My Sunitha is the Shakuntala of our school." The science teacher said, "She is as clever as Kalpana Chawla and as hard working as Marie Curie. One day she will bring Nobel prize to our country." The physical education teacher started singing the praises of Sunitha saying, "You know, she runs like a hare and swims like a fish. And in the boxing ring? She is a leopard. I must say she is the Mary Kom of our state." Unlike other teachers, the social studies teacher hated this girl as Sunitha belonged to the so called 'lower caste'. She said, "Sunitha... a hare, a fish and …what is that? … a leopard. She is more an animal than a girl, I suppose." All other teachers said in unison, "Yes, she is an animal for animals that cannot understand the metaphor in language."

IV. Prefixes and suffixes
Every language contains an enormous and ever-growing number of words. Enhancing your vocabulary by learning new words can be overwhelming, but if you know the common prefixes and suffixes of the language, you will understand many more words.

Mastering common prefixes and suffixes is like learning a code. Once you crack the code, you can not only spell words more correctly but also recognize and perhaps even define unfamiliar words.

Read the following sentences.
1. Was there an indefinable quality in the white man that enabled his baby…
2. The little boy ran into the house and reappeared shortly with a banana.

In the underlined words in the above sentences, ‘in -’ and ‘re’- are prefixes, and ‘- able’ is a suffix.

List of prefixes and suffixes

Prefixes               : dis -----,   mis-----,   un-----,   re-----,   inter-----,   pre-----,
Suffixes                : ----ness,   ----able,   -----ly,   ----ous,   ----ful,   -----ment,   -----ism,   ----er,   ---ing,

Look at the following table and notice the example words formes with prefixes.

Prefix
Meaning
Example
dis
not, opposite of
dis + satisfied = dissatisfied
mis
Wrongly
mis + spell = misspell
un
Not
un + acceptable = unacceptable
re
Again
re + election = reelection
inter
Between
inter + related = interrelated
pre
Before
pre + pay = prepay
non
Not
non + sense = nonsense
super
Above
super + script = superscript
sub
Under
sub + merge = submerge
anti
against, opposing
anti + bacterial = antibacterial


A few prefixes that give the meaning "no" or "not." are ..
Prefix                                     Examples
il-            denotes negative;           not illegal, illegitimate
im-         denotes negative;           not immoral, impossible
in-           denotes negative;           not inexpensive, incapable
ir-            denotes negative;           not irresponsible, irrelevant
un-         denotes negative;           not unhappy, unconditional
no-         denotes negative;           not nobody, nowhere
.. Prefixes change the meaning of words .
.. Some of the suffixes change the word class also , as in

beautiful         ____    beautifully
( adjective)                         (adverb)

(a) Identify prefixes and suffixes in the lesson.



(b) Read the following passage and underline the words with prefixes and suffixes.

Improper garbage disposal can cause contamination of subterranean water sources. Relocating garbage dumps doesn't necessarily solve this unhealthful problem. Laws preceding the discovery of this problem were relaxed in terms of garbage disposal. Since the discovery, authorities have proceeded to toughen these laws and have injected funds into reevaluating ongoing practices. Environmental organizations have helped to convince the public of the depth of the problem and the need to recycle. Some garbage dumps have receded in size, but most have increased as the unbelievable amount of garbage produced continues to multiply .

(c) Insert the words in blanks with the appropriate prefixes and suffixes.
1. The rate of __________________ in Brazil has been rising steadily. (employ)
2. Lenny looked funny in his _____________shirt and pants (matched)
3. When my sister first saw the meteor, she thought it was a ________ phenomenon. (natural)
4. He was sitting __________________ in his seat on the train. (comfort)
5. With a small class size, the students get to ________ with the teacher more frequently. ( act )
6. I slipped on the ice because I did not heed the ________ about watching my step. (cautions )
7. The team that he supported were able to win the__________________ . (champion)
8. He decided to study __________________ at university. (journal)
9. I wanted to ease my stomach ________ so I drank some ginger root tea. (comfort )
10. She had no __________________ of going to see him. (intend)

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