I. Non-finite clauses
Read the following senences and notice the underlined words.
1. Nightingale is a European singing bird.
2. The degraded environment is causing a lot of havoc.
Here, singing and degraded are non-finite verbs (participle form) and they are used as adjectives.
When you add -ing/-ed/-en to a verb and if it functions as an adjective then, it is a non-finite verb.
Read the following senences and notice the underlined words.
I asked the foresters to come and teach them.
Non-finite verbs that use 'to' before them are called 'infinitives'.
Non -finite clauses:- Non -finite clauses are simply dependent clauses that use
non-finite verbs. They don't contain a finite verb. In these clauses the verb is in a participle or infinite form.
(a) Underline the non-finite clauses in the following sentences.
- Born in London, he became the citizen of U.K.
- Having done his homework, he went out to play.
- Recognized by his boss, he got an appreciation letter.
- Encouraged by his father, Ravi got distinction in his final examination.
- With the tree grown tall, we get more shade.
- We left the room and went home to search for the books.
- Do we have the money to buy that car?
- We were not able to get away until now.
- Having read the book I returned it to the Library.
- Jumping on his horse the farmer rode to the market.
(b) Look at how the following sentences have been rewritten to include nonfinite clauses.
- Vincent Van Gogh, who was born in Holland in 1853, is one of the world's most famous painters.
Born in Holland in 1853, Vincent Van Gogh is one of the world's famous painters.
- Although his talent was unrecognized throughout his life, it was much appreciated after his death.
Although unrecognized throughout his life, his talent was much appreciated after his death.
- After he had failed in every career he had attempted, Van Gogh first turned to art to express his strong religious feelings.
Having failed in every career he had attempted, Van Gogh first turned to art to express his strong feelings.
Rewrite the following sentences to include non-finite clauses.
- After he had decided to become a painter, in about 1880, he started to paint studies of peasants and miners.
- During the next few years, which are known as his 'Dutch period', he produced paintings with rather dark greenish-brown colours.
- In 1886, when he went to Paris to visit his brother Theo, he was immediately attracted to the Impressionist work he saw there. He decided to stay in Paris and continued his painting there.
- He was encouraged by Pissaro to use more colour in his pictures and his subsequent paintings were bright and immensely colourful.
- After Van Gogh had moved to Arles in the south of France, in 1888, he worked frantically.
- This frenzied activity, which was interrupted by bouts of deep depression and despair, produced the majority of his most famous paintings.
- One of these, which is called Self Portrait with Bandaged Ear, shows Van Gogh. He was wearing a bandage after he had cut off his ear. A year later, in 1890, he committed suicide.
- A lot is known about Van Gogh's life and his feelings because of the hundreds of letters, which were written by him to his brother Theo and others.
- Because his brother believed in Van Gogh's genius, he always encouraged him in his work. He was the person closest to Van Gogh.
II. Reported speech
Apart from the ground rules that are laid down for reporting in traditional grammar books, there are certain other principles that are to be followed to make the speech appealing.
Suppose you want to tell somebody what Ram said. There are two ways of doing this:
You can repeat Ram's words (direct speech)
Ram said, 'I am feeling ill.'
Or you can use reported speech:
Ram said that he was feeling ill.
It is not always necessary to change the verb in reported speech. If you report something and the situation hasn't changed, you need not change the verb to the past:
Direct : Neelima said, 'My new job is very interesting.'
Reported : Neelima said that her new job is very interesting.
(The situation hasn't changed. Her job is still interesting.)
Direct : Ravi said, 'I want to go to New York next year.'
Indirect : Ravi told me that he wants to go to New York next year.
(Ravi still wants to go to New York next year.)
You can also change the verb to the past:
Neelima said that her new job was very interesting.
Ravi told me that he wanted to go to New York next year.
The past simple (did/saw/knew etc.) can usually stay the same in reported speech,
or you can change to past perfect (had done/had seen/had known etc.):
Direct : Ravi said: 'I woke up feeling ill, so I didn't go to work."
Reported : Ravi said (that) he woke up feeling ill, so he didn't go to work.
or Ravi said (that) he had woken up feeling ill, so he hadn't gone to work.
Look at the following conversation and notice how it is reported.
NHK Radio : How is peace connected to a good environment?
Wangari Maathai : Many wars that are fought in the world are fought over natural resources. Some wars are fought because the environment is so degraded that it is not able to support communities and so they fight over the little that is left. Others are fought because some people want to take a lot of the resources, to control them, and to keep many other people out.
Reported speech of the above conversation:
NHK Radio asked Wangari Maathai how peace was connected to a good environment.
She answered that many wars that were fought in the world were fought over natural resources. Some wars were fought because the environment was so degraded that it was not able to support communities and so they fought over the little that was left. Others were fought because some people wanted to take a lot of the resources, to control them, and to keep many other people out.
A. Write the following in Reported Speech:
NHK Radio : What is the one thing we can do ?
Wangari Maathai : For me, my greatest activity is to plant a tree. I think that a tree is a wonderful symbol for the environment and when we plant a tree we plant hope. We plant the future for ourselves, for our children, for the birds. We plant something that will last, long after we are gone.
B. Report the following dialogue:
Man : I'm doing a survey on shopping habits.
Woman : OK. As long as it doesn't take long.
Man : How often do you eat hamburgers?
Woman : Never. I'm a vegetarian. I don't eat any animal products.
Man : Right! Can I just ask you? Are you wearing leather shoes?
Woman : Yes, I am.
Man : Don't you think that's rather hypocritical?
Woman : No, Not really.
Man : Oh, that's amusing.