Look at the following sentences taken from the reading passage:
1. As he raced down the golden-lined wheat fields, he would always outrun the locomotives passing by.
2. When he heard the singing in some distant robins in flight, he knew it was his time to fly.
3. Since the other vaulter had fewer misses, Michel needed to clear this vault to win.
In the above sentences the clauses with as and when denote time whereas since denotes reason. As and when refer to time and the other parts state what happened at that time. In the third sentence, the clause beginning with since states the reason and the other states the consequence.
The words as, when, since are conjunctions, which connect two sentences (clauses).
The clauses containing these words are called Adverbial clauses. These adverbial clauses cannot stand independently, so they are called Dependent clauses or Subordinate clauses. The clause that stands on its own is an Independent clause or Main clause.
The linkers as, when and since (Adverbs) are placed before the clauses to make them Subordinate clause.
Now, read the biographical account once again and pick out the Adverbial clauses and Main clauses and write them in the table or in your notebook.
Sentence from the text
Adverbial / Dependent Clause
Main / Independent Clause
Complete the following sentences with appropriate Adverbial clauses. Use the adverbs wherever they are given in brackets.
1. The teacher entered the class, ____________________________.
2. The dog ran into a speeding car, __________________________.
3. I was in deep sleep, ____________________________________.
4. Someone knocked at the door, ____________________________.
5. The crowd cheered Michael Stone, ___________________ . (as soon as)
6. It is high time the cricket board thought of different alternatives, __ . (as)