I. Read the following sentences from the story.
We found we had little to carry. Some thief had removed most of my things.
In the above two sentences, the first one is in the simple past (found, had) and the second is in the past perfect tense (had removed).
As you can see, the action which occurred earlier, is expressed in the past perfect tense, whereas the action which occurred later, is expressed in the simple past tense.
Here are a few more examples.
1. Sujatha had arrived at the station before the train came.
2. The doctor arrived after the patient had died.
3: I bought the ticket as soon as I boarded the bus.
When two actions occur nearly simultaneously in the past, both are expressed in the simple past tense (exceptional case)
Now combine the following pair of sentences using the past perfect and the simple past.
(use after, before or when as linkers)
The first one has been done for you.
1. I brushed my teeth. I took my breakfast.
A. After I had brushed my teeth, I took my breakfast.
I had brushed my teeth before I took my breakfast.
2. She started to go to market. It rained heavily.
3. He completed his homework. He went to bed.
4. I finished my dinner. Then my father came.
5. I fell seriously ill. I met my family doctor.
6. I locked the door. I went out to meet my friend at a restaurant.
II. Phrasal Verbs
Look at the following phrasal verbs and their meanings.
1. take out - to remove something from inside
2. set up - to arrange for something; to happen / to start
3. take off - to remove
4. lie down - to take rest
5. take time off - to take some time for something
6. look into - to observe oneself keenly
7. look at - to have a look at something
8. get up - to wake up
9. change into - to turn into
10. leave behind - to leave something as a token of memory or gift
As you can see, a phrasal verb is a unit of a verb and one or more particles / a preposition. It cannot be understood on the basis of the meanings of the individual parts in isolation, but rather it must be taken as a whole.
Use the above phrasal verbs in the blanks. Make necessary changes in the verb forms.
Venkata Rao was a rich man. He wanted to _____________________ some business in the town. So he _____________________ a lot of money from the bank. On an auspicious day he started his medical business, which increased by leaps and bounds. He became so busy that he could not _______________________ for any rest. He used to _____________________ very early in the morning and go to his office. In the afternoon he would __________________________ his shirt and _______________ on his couch in the office. After a nap he would put on his shirt. Then he would ____________ the mirror and _________________ himself admiringly. Anyhow he ________________________ some fame in the town even when he went abroad. Everybody believed that he _________________________ a new man.